Welcome to the Centre of Climate & Air Pollution Studies (C-CAPS) at NUI Galway's Ryan Institute

StreamAIR StreamAIR is the C-CAPS atmospheric real time data and forecasting system, which integrates key information on air pollutants, essential climate variables and advanced meteorology.

StreamAIR-AQ is the Air Quality (AQ) forecasting component of StreamAIR for Air Pollution over Europe and currently forecasts the main particulate and gaseous air pollutants (e.g. PM2.5, NO2, and O3). PM is typically (but not limited to) smoke/haze pollution from solid fuel burning, and NO2 mainly from traffic. Ozone can be formed from local traffic smog or long-range or even hemispheric transport of pollution.

Navigating your way around the StreamAIR interface.

Selecting Realtime or Forecast

Yellow towers are EEA regulatory AQ realtime data stations. These stations deliver SO2, NO2, O3, PM2.5 and PM10 data in near real time.

White towers are AEROSOURCE advanced aerosol chemical composition (ACSM) realtime data stations delivering organic aerosol, sulphate, nitrate, ammonium and black carbon.

The European Air Quality Index (EAQI) combines information for five different air pollutants to show the current status of Europe’s air quality.

The colour scheme is provided to give information on the status of the air quality at each map location. The EAQI also sometime used as a numeric index ranging from 1 (Good) to 6 (Extremely poor) in steps of 1.

StreamAIR does not give weather warnings. Official weather warnings are managed by the national meteorological service Met Éireann, www.met.ie, or EUMETNET, eumetnet.eu.

For Air Pollution, we forecast the current European Air Quality Index https://airindex.eea.europa.eu and its six Index levels of Good, Fair, Moderate, Poor, Very Poor, and Extremely Poor. See the table above and below for the concentration levels associated with these indices and related advice as to what to do under such AQ levels.

Health messages

The index bands are complemented by health related messages that provide recommendations for both the general population and sensitive populations. The latter includes both adults and children with respiratory problems and adults with heart conditions.

We also present air pollution forecasts in terms of concentrations and exceedances as classified by the WHO Air Quality Guidelines (AQG). The WHO AQG are a combination of exceedance above a concentration threshold and an exposure time. For Particulate Matter (PM), the exposure time is 24 hours. The thresholds for exceedance for PM2.5 and PM10 are 25 μg m-3 and 50 μg m-3. For O3, exceedance occurs for 50 ppb (100 μg m-3) over an 8-hour period. For NO2 exceedance is 106 ppb for 1 hour. For the European area as a whole, there is a 2-D animated forecast of the percent exceedance for any one of the 5 parameters covered.

Air Pollution alerts for a selected location (i.e. select 48 Hour Forecast) are given if the hour average of a pollutant parameter approaches an AQI threshold, exceeds the threshold, or is predicted to exceed the threshold within the next 24 hours. For this scenario, a transparent mask in the colour representing that particular parameter appears at the time the exceedance is forecast. If the average concentration exceeds the threshold for the specified duration, a full colour mask is displayed (see Air Pollution Outlook graphic, below).

The meteorological outlook is shown as a 2-D colour contour plot, as is the Air Pollution outlook. These are summarised with a 'Now' status icon box as well as +1 to +12 hour summary outlooks for sky conditions, temperature, wind, and Air Pollution Index. Also shown is a composite (radar and model) animation of a local rain nowcast for current time T from T-50 minutes to T+50 minutes provided by weerslag.nl . Note: the rain nowcast is on a different animation timescale (with 5 minute time steps) from the main forecast parameters (1 hour steps).

EEA data used under the Creative Commons licence.